<output id="kii7p"></output>
<sub id="kii7p"><output id="kii7p"></output></sub>
<acronym id="kii7p"><li id="kii7p"></li></acronym>

<delect id="kii7p"></delect>
  • 美國獨立宣言全文(中英文)

    THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

    獨立宣言

    In Congress, July 4, 1776, 大陸會議(一七七六年七月四日)

    THE UNANIMOUS DECLARATION OF THE THIRTEEN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    美利堅合眾國十三個州一致通過的獨立宣言

    美國獨立宣言全文(中英文)

    When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bonds which have connected them with another, and to assume among the Powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

    在有關人類事務的發展過程中,當一個民族必須解除其和另一個民族之間的政治聯系,并在世界各國之間依照自然法則和自然之造物主的意旨,接受獨立和平等的地位時,出于人類輿論的尊重,必須把他們不得不獨立的原因予以宣布。

    We hold these truths to be self- evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.

    我們認為這些真理是不言而喻的:人人生而平等,造物者賦予他們若干不可剝奪的權利,其中包括生命權、自由權和追求幸福的權利。

    That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.

    為了保障這些權利,人類才在他們之間建立政府,而政府之正當權力,是經被治理者的同意而產生的。

    That whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience has shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves byabolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.

    當任何形式的政府對這些目標具破壞作用時,人民便有權力改變或廢除它,以建立一個新的政府;其賴以奠基的原則,其組織權力的方式,務使人民認為唯有這樣才最可能獲得他們的安全和幸福。為了慎重起見,成立多年的政府,是不應當由于輕微和短暫的原因而予以變更的。過去的一切經驗也都說明,任何苦難,只要是尚能忍受,人類都寧愿容忍,而無意為了本身的權益便廢除他們久已習慣了的政府。但是,當追逐同一目標的一連串濫用職權和強取豪奪發生,證明政府企圖把人民置于專制統治之下時,那么人民就有權利,也有義務推翻這個政府,并為他們未來的安全建立新的保障。

    Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

    這就是這些殖民地過去逆來順受的情況,也是它們不得不改變政府制度的原因。大不列顛國在位國王的歷史,是接連不斷的傷天害理和強取豪奪的歷史,這些暴行的唯一目標,就是想在這些州建立專制的暴政。為了證明所言屬實,現把下列事實向公正的世界宣布--

    He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

    他拒絕批準對公眾利益最有益、最必要的法律。

    He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

    他禁止他的總督們批準迫切而極為必要的法律,要不就把這些法律擱置起來暫不生效,等待他的同意;而一旦這些法律被擱置起來,他對它們就完全置之不理。

    He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

    他拒絕批準便利廣大地區人民的其它法律,除非那些人民情愿放棄自己在立法機關中的代表權;但這種權利對他們有無法估量的價值,而且只有暴君才畏懼這種權利。

    He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distantfrom the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

    他把各州立法團體召集到異乎尋常的、極為不便的、遠離它們檔案庫的地方去開會,唯一的目的是使他們疲于奔命,不得不順從他的意旨。

    He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

    他一再解散各州的議會,因為他們以無畏的堅毅態度反對他侵犯人民的權利。

    He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

    他在解散各州議會之后,又長期拒絕另選新議會;但立法權是無法取消的,因此這項權力仍由一般人民來行使。其實各州仍然處于危險的境地,既有外來侵略之患,又有發生內亂之憂。

    He has endeavoured to preventthe population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws of Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands .

    他竭力抑制我們各州增加人口;為此目的,他阻撓外國人入籍法的通過,拒絕批準其它鼓勵外國人移居各州的法律,并提高分配新土地的條件。

    He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.

    他拒絕批準建立司法權力的法律,藉以阻撓司法工作的推行。

    He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

    他把法官的任期、薪金數額和支付,完全置于他個人意志的支配之下。

    He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our People, and eat out their substance.

    他建立新官署,派遣大批官員,騷擾我們人民,并耗盡人民必要的生活物質。

    He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

    他在和平時期,未經我們的立法機關同意,就在我們中間維持常備軍。

    He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.

    他力圖使軍隊獨立于民政之外,并凌駕于民政之上。

    He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

    他同某些人勾結起來把我們置于一種不適合我們的體制且不為我們的法律所承認的管轄之下;他還批準那些人炮制的各種偽法案來達到以下目的:

    For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

    在我們中間駐扎大批武裝部隊;

    For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

    用假審訊來包庇他們,使他們殺害我們各州居民而仍然逍遙法外;

    For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

    切斷我們同世界各地的貿易;

    For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

    未經我們同意便向我們強行征稅;

    For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:

    在許多案件中剝奪我們享有陪審制的權益;

    For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:

    羅織罪名押送我們到海外去受審;

    For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrarygovernment, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:

    在一個鄰省廢除英國的自由法制,在那里建立專制政府,并擴大該省的疆界,企圖把該省變成既是一個樣板又是一個得心應手的工具,以便進而向這里的各殖民地推行同樣的極權統治;

    For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our Governments:

    取消我們的憲章,廢除我們最寶貴的法律,并且根本上改變我們各州政府的形式;

    For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

    中止我們自己的立法機關行使權力,宣稱他們自己有權就一切事宜為我們制定法律。

    He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

    他宣布我們已不屬他保護之列,并對我們作戰,從而放棄了在這里的政務。

    He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the Lives of our people.

    他在我們的海域大肆掠奪,蹂躪我們沿海地區,焚燒我們的城鎮,殘害我們人民的生命。

    He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

    他此時正在運送大批外國傭兵來完成屠殺、破壞和肆虐的老勾當,這種勾當早就開始,其殘酷卑劣甚至在最野蠻的時代都難以找到先例。他完全不配作為一個文明國家的元首。

    He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

    他在公海上俘虜我們的同胞,強迫他們拿起武器來反對自己的國家,成為殘殺自己親人和朋友的劊子手,或是死于自己的親人和朋友的手下。

    He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

    他在我們中間煽動內亂,并且竭力挑唆那些殘酷無情、沒有開化的印第安人來殺掠我們邊疆的居民;而眾所周知,印第安人的作戰律令是不分男女老幼,一律格殺勿論的。

    In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

    在這些壓迫的每一階段中,我們都是用最謙卑的言辭請愿改善;但屢次請求所得到的答復是屢次遭受損害。一個君主,當他的品格已打上了暴君行為的烙印時,是不配作自由人民的統治者的。

    Nor have We been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpation, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

    我們不是沒有注意我們英國的弟兄。我們時常提醒他們,他們的立法機關企圖把無理的管轄權橫加到我們的頭上。我們也曾把我們移民出這里和在這里定居的情形告訴他們。我們曾經向他們天生的正義感和雅量呼吁,我們懇求他們念在同種同宗的份上,棄絕這些掠奪行為,以免影響彼此的關系和往來。但是他們卻對于這種正義和血緣的呼聲一直充耳不聞。因此,我們實在不得不宣布和他們脫離,并且以對待世界上其它民族一樣的態度對待他們:戰即為敵;和則為友。

    We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the Protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

    因此,我們,在大陸會議上集會的美利堅合眾國代表,以各殖民地善良人民的名義并經他們授權,向全世界最崇高的正義呼吁,說明我們的嚴正意向,同時鄭重宣布;這些聯合的殖民地是而且有權成為自由和獨立的國家,它們取消一切對英國王室效忠的義務,它們和大不列顛國家之間的一切政治關系從此全部斷絕,而且必須斷絕;作為自由獨立的國家,它們完全有權宣戰、締和、結盟、通商和獨立國家有權去做的一切行動。為了支持這篇宣言,我們堅決信賴上帝的庇佑,以我們的生命、我們的財產和我們神圣的名譽,彼此宣誓。

    《獨立宣言》的所有簽署者

    JOHN HANCOCK, President

    約翰·漢考克,主席

    Attested, CHARLES THOMSON, Secretary

    鑒定無誤,查爾斯·湯森,秘書

    New Hampshire: JOSIAH BARTLETT, WILLIAM WHIPPLE, MATTHEW THORNTON

    新罕布夏:約西亞·巴列特、威廉·衛普、馬修·松頓

    Massachusetts-Bay: SAMUEL ADAMS, JOHN ADAMS, ROBERT TREAT PAINE, ELBRIDGE GERRY

    馬薩諸塞:塞繆爾·亞當斯、約翰·亞當斯、羅伯特·崔特·潘恩、艾爾布里吉·杰利

    Rhode Island: STEPHEN HOPKINS, WILLIAM ELLERY

    羅德島州:史帝芬·霍普金斯、威廉·艾勒里

    Connecticut: ROGER SHERMAN, SAMUEL HUNTINGTON, WILLIAM WILLIAMS, OLIVER WOLCOTT

    康涅狄格州:羅杰·謝爾曼、山繆·杭丁頓、威廉·威廉斯、奧利佛·渥寇特

    Georgia: BUTTON GWINNETT, LYMAN HALL, GEO. WALTON

    喬治亞:巴頓·格威內特、李曼·候爾、喬治·沃爾頓

    Maryland: SAMUEL CHASE, WILLIAM PACA, THOMAS STONE, CHARLES CARROLL OF CARROLLTON

    馬里蘭:山繆·卻斯、威廉·帕卡、托馬斯·史東、卡羅頓的查爾斯·卡羅

    Virginia: GEORGE WYTHE, RICHARD HENRY LEE, THOMAS JEFFERSON, BENJAMIN HARRISON, THOMAS NELSON, JR., FRANCIS LIGHTFOOT LEE, CARTER BRAXTON.

    維吉尼亞:喬治·懷勒、理查·亨利·李、托馬斯·杰斐遜、本杰明·哈里森、小托馬斯·尼爾森、法蘭西斯·萊富特·李、卡特·布瑞斯頓

    (0)
    法律匯編法律匯編認證用戶

    發表回復

    您的電子郵箱地址不會被公開。 必填項已用*標注

    欧美Av国产Av亚洲Av_欧美伦费影视在线观看_中国黄色一级a毛片不卡_精品午夜国产视频
    <output id="kii7p"></output>
    <sub id="kii7p"><output id="kii7p"></output></sub>
    <acronym id="kii7p"><li id="kii7p"></li></acronym>

    <delect id="kii7p"></delect>